Tamil Nadu 12th Class School Textbooks Online: Studyguideindia provides Class First Term: English Medium Chemistry1 (Tamil Medium) · Bio Zoology (Tamil Medium) · Business maths (Tamil State Wise School Text Books Download. Pages · · MB · 9, Downloads ·English TEXT-BOOKS OF ANIMAL BIOLOGY A General Zoology of the Invertebrates Vertebrate Zoology. Text book published by Government of Tamil Nadu.
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Notemonk is an exciting new way to experience books. An easy to use webtool helping students to prepare better by downloading books, taking notes, sharing. Samacheer kalvi 12th Books, 12th commerce book pdf download, 12th tamil book pdf download, 12th computer Zoology Vol. 1 TN class 12th standard samacheer books for all subjects, English medium is given below. Tamilnadu 12th New Books Free Download PDF Tamil & English Medium at thetwestperlnetself.tk Tamilnadu Tamilnadu 12th Standard Books to TN HSC Samacheer Kalvi Books pdf Download for Free Bio- Zoology.
Nuclear Transplantation, Nucleocytoplasmic interaction, Differentiation, Metamorphosis in Amphibia, Insect Metamorphosis, Regeneration, Asexual Reproduction, Birth Control, Infertility, Test Tube Baby, Rh Factor, Congenital Anomalies, Cancer, Aging, Invitro Fertilization, Embryo Transfer, Twins, Cloning, In the cortex are accumulations of lymphocytes primary follicles within which germinal centers secondary follicles develop during antigenic stimulation.
The follicles contain, besides proliferating lymphocytes, dendritic macrophages which capture and process the antigen.
In the medulla, the lymphocytes are arranged as elongated branching bands medullary cords. The cortical follicles and medullary cords contain B lymphocytes and constitute the bursa or bone marrow dependent areas. Between the cortical follicles and medullary cords, there is a broad, intermediate zone called paracortical area which contains T lymphocytes and constitutes the thymus dependent area.
Lymph nodes act as a filter for the lymph. Each group of nodes drain a specific part of the body. They phagocytose foreign materials including microorganisms. They help the proliferation and circulation of T and B cells.
They enlarge following local antigenic stimulation. In the human body, totally about lymph nodes are distributed. Describe the anatomical and physiological barriers in the first line of defence against diseases. Physiological Barriers: Factors like body temperature, pH and various body secretions, prevent the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms. For example, fever response inhibits growth of many pathogens.
Acidity of the stomach contents due to HCl secretion kills ingested micro-organisms. Lysozyme present in secretions, such as tears and saliva, digest bacterial cell walls. Certain cells, like WBC, when infected with a virus, respond by releasing anti viral proteins, called interferons. Interferons, in turn, make the cells in the vicinity resistant to viral infections. As a result, the concerned persons exhibit increased resistance to viral infections. Phagocytic Barriers: It is performed by leucocytes.
In response to pathogenic infections, the total count of leucocytes will increase sharply. Humans contain wandering phagocytes that circulate throughout the body. The most important phagocytes are the macrophages and the neutrophils. Macrophages are large irregular-shaped cells that engulf microbes, viruses and cellular debris. In response to an infection, monocytes are liberated at the site of infection.
These monocytes get converted into macrophages. These cells are provided with bacteriolytic enzymes and free radicals, which destroy the pathogens. Unique features of the Adaptive immunity S i Specificity: It is the ability to distinguish differences among various foreign molecules. It can recognize a vast variety of foreign molecules. It is able to recognize and respond to molecules that are foreign non-self to the body.
At the same time, it can avoid response to those molecules that are present within thebody self antigens of the given animal. When the immune system encounters a specific foreign agent, e.
The immune system retains the memory of this encounter for a prolonged interval. As a result, a second encounter with the same microbe evokes a heightened immune response. An activated cytotoxic lymphocyte is specific to a target cell, which has been infected, and kill the target cell by a variety of mechanisms. This prevents the completion of life cycle of the pathogen and its growth, since it depends on an intact host cell to do that. Cell-mediated immunity is also involved in killing of cancer cells.
It contains red and white pulp regions that serve as filters. The macrophages within the spleen help to remove and destroy pathogens. Functions of Spleen: The spleen serves as the graveyard for effete aged red blood cells, 2. It acts as a reserve tank and setting bed for blood 3.
It acts as a systemic filter for trapping circulating blood borne foreign particles. The immunological function of the spleen is primarily directed against blood borne antigens. Education to people for bringing more awareness among the public. What are the pathogenic adaptations of microbes? M, J, S, J, S Pathogens are able to selectively attach to the external surfaces such as the skin and conjunctiva They also penetrate the above body surfaces and gain access to the internal tissues.
In some infections, the pathogen may remain localized, growing near its point of entry into the body. Some pathogens become widely distributed in different tissues or organs. This is called generalized infections. Some other pathogens can grow within the cells of host, causing severe disturbances to normal physiological processes. Yet another group, may grow extracellularly and bring damage to the body tissues by elaborating substances called toxins. What are the steps involved in the preparation of bacterial media?
S, J, S Each ingredient is dissolved in the appropriate volume of distilled water. The pH of medium is determined. Agar is added and the medium solid medium is boiled to dissolve agar.
The medium is dispersed in flasks or tubes. The medium is sterilized by autoclaving. Describe the structure of HIV virus. M Shape - spherical Size - nm. It is made up of a central icosahedral capsid core The protein envelope is attached several spicules of glycoprotein. The outer position of glycoprotein called gp The outer position of glycoprotein called gp 41 gp 41 is long protein with over amino acids.
The distribution of proteins of the viral surface is very much like a soccer ball made of 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons, stitched together to make a sphere. The enzyme reverse transcriptase is attached to RNA. What is called Chemotherapy? What are the good characteristics of Chemo therapeutic agent?
J The control and treatment of infectious diseases with a chemical compound or drug is called chemotherapy. The chemical compounds and drugs are called chemotherapeutic agents.
A good chemotherapeutic agent posses the following characteristics: It destroys or prevents the activity of a disease causing pathogen, without injuring the host tissues It is able to penetrate the cells and tissues of the host and can encounter the pathogens in effective but safe concentrations or dosage. It leaves the hosts natural defense or immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis or antibody production, unaffected. It exhibits selective toxicity, that is it kills or inhibits the pathogenic microbes without having harmful effect or having least harm to the host.
Write the pathogen,symptoms and mode of transmission of Rabies and cholera. M A. Rabies and Rabies Virus: Rabies virus belongs to the rhabdovirus family. It is a parasite of domestic and wild mammals. The transmission to humans occurs through the bite of an infected animal.
Dogs, cats, bats, are the mammalian animal sources for the rabies virus. The incubation time in humans is usually about 3 to 8 weeks but it may also vary. If untreated the mortality rate from rabies is percent. The new rabies vaccine was discovered in It is an inactivated vaccine prepared from the virus propagated in cultures of diploid human cells. This vaccine is both safe and highly immunogenic. Symptoms severe headache, high fever, alternating excitement and depression, muscular spasms in throat and chest, hydrophobia B.
Cholera is caused by Vibrio cholere. It is a disease of antiquity and has been the cause of untold sufferings and death. Cholera is transmitted in water and food contaminated with this bacteria. In the small intestine, the bacteria adhere to epithelium, multiply and produce the enterotoxin. The symptoms of cholera are vomiting, profuse diarrhoeal stool rice water stool Which results in severe dehydration, loss of minerals, increased blood acidity and haemoconcentration.
Primary culture: Primary cell culture are derived from normal tissue of an animal such as mouse, hamster, chicken and monkey or a human being. When cells from these tissues are processed and cultured the first monolayer is referred to as the primary culture. A monolayer is a confluent layer of cells covering the surface of a culture vessel. Diploid cell strain: Diploid cell strains are derived by primary cell cultures from a specific tissues like lung or kidney which is of embryonic origin.
These diploid cells are the most employed host of choice for the production of human vaccine virus. Continuous cell lines: Continuous cell lines are capable of an infinite number of doublings. Such cell lines may arise with the mutation of a cell strain or more commonly from the established cell cultures from malignant tissue. Many viruses, which are difficult or impossible to grow have been cultured in continuous cell lines. Write notes on sexually transmitted bacterial diseases in man.
J, M A Syphilis: It is caused by Treponema pallidium. Syphilis occurs only in humans It is transmitted by 1. Direct sexual contact Venereal syphilis 2. Through placenta from an infected mother to the foetus Congenital syphilis.
Venereal syphilis progresses in three stages viz. The symptoms are very prominent in the tertiary stage.
B Gonorrhoea: Gonorrhoea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoea. MALE The primary site of infection in the male is the urethra. It causes pain during urination and a yellowish discharge from the urethra of male. In female also it causes painful urination and vaginal discharge.
Bacterial Diseases J, M A. Salmonella and Human Diseases: Salmonella are pathogenic bacilli which cause three kinds of infection to humans viz. Gastroenteritis 3.
Typhoid Typhoid fever is caused by S. It is transmitted via Pathogen contained food and water. The disease is characterized by a continuedfever, inflammation of the intestine, formation of intestinal ulcers and enlargement of the spleen.
Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is caused by Salmonella, but most commonly by S. The bacteria reach the blood stream from the intestinal tract, where it multiplies. It causes recurring high fever, chills, loss of appetite and weight loss. When the bacteria infect the organs from blood they can cause meningitis, pneumonia, abscesses, nephritis, osteomyelitis, or endocarditis, etc.
Plague is caused by the bacterial species Yersinia pestis, a non motile gram negative bacilli. There are two types of plagues.
They are bubonic plague and pneumonic plague. Bubonic plague is characterized by enlarged and inflamed lymph glands Bubos. The symptoms are shivering, fever, nausea, vomiting and general weakness. Pneumonic plague is a pneumonia characterized by a thin watery sputum with bright red streaks of blood. Write notes on viral diseases in man. M, J A. Cancer and Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses have been identified as one of the causative agents for cancer or tumour. Such tumour inducing viruses are called oncogenic viruses.
Symptoms severe headache, high fever, alternating excitement and depression, muscular spasms in throat and chest, hydrophobia C. Pox and Pox virus Pox viruses are the largest of all viruses and are brick shaped. They contain double stranded DNA, protein and lipid. They have a dum bell shaped nucleoid surrounded by two membrane layers.
Variola virus is called the small pox virus. It is transmitted by droplet infection either directly from the infected person or by handling articles infected by the patient. Small pox is completely eradicated. The small pox vaccine consists of vaccinia, closely related to variola. It gives protection both by humoral and cell mediated immunity. Other pox viruses are chicken pox and measles viruses. This causes jaundice and hepatic carcinoma.
This disease is deadly and more infective than AIDS. Write notes on Bacterial Genetics. S In bacteria the cells have a single circular strand of DNA. It is not associated with proteins as are eukaryotic chromosomes.
The bacterial genes,like the eukaryotic genes possess the features of replication, phenotype expression, mutation and genetic recombination etc.
In bacteria the genetic recombination results from three types of gene transfer viz. Conjugation involves the transfer of some DNA from one bacterial cell to another followed by the separation of the mating pair of cells. In this,large segments of the chromosomes and in special cases the entire chromosome may be transferred.
Bacterial transformation is a process in which cell free or naked DNA containing the genetic information is transferred from one bacterial cell to another. It was discovered by an English health officer, Griffith in In transduction, a bacteriophages acts as a vector, transfering a portion of DNA from one bacterium donor to another recepient.
If all fragments of bacterial DNA have a chance to enter a transducing phage, the process is called Generalized transduction. On the contrary if a few restricted genes of the bacterial chromosomes are transduced by bacteriophage, it is called specialized transduction. Write notes on Viral Genetics. Smaller viruses like paraviruses may have 3 to 4 genes while larger viruses like herpes and pox may have several hundred genes.
Virions contain only a single copy of the nucleic acid. Hence they are called haploid viruses. The only exception is the retroviruses, which are said to be diploid as they contain two identical single-stranded RNA genomes. The virions are called the infectious particles. The structure of nucleic acid in the virion may be either linear or circular. The DNA of most animal viruses in a linear molecule.
In some plant viruses the genome is a circular RNA. But the RNA in animal viruses exists only as linear double stranded or single stranded molecule. List out the significance and benefits of Human Genome Project.
To understand more about the diseases and to design drugs. Helps in diagnosis of defective genes that cause disease. Tool to Eugenical concept and can create superior, disease free human beings in future. Helps in somatic cell gene therapy and germ line gene therapy.
What are the ethical issues,merits and demerits of cloning OR Describe the demerits of cloning. S, M, S, J An unethical and unnatural technique. May lead to the birth of wrong persons. Cloning cannot produce children like the children born to genetic mothers. Variations in traits are bound to appear. The longevity of the new born, disease tolerance capacity are some criteria to be considered.
Cloned animals have also developed diseases like arthritis. Cloning also leads to wastage of egg cells. Cloned animals may have health problems. They may die at a much earlier age and may have short life span. Write about Huntington's chorea M,S This is a fatal disease caused by an autosomal dominant gene in human. The onset of the disease is between 35 and 40 years of age. It is characterized by uncontrolled jerking of the body due to involuntary twitching of voluntary muscles.
It leads to progressive degeneration of the central nervous system accompanied by gradual mental and physical deterioration. Huntingtons disease was the first completely dominant human genetic disease to come to light.
The affected gene is located on chromosome 4. Other characteristics of this disease are deterioration of intellectual faculty, depression, occasional hallucination and delusions and other psychological problems. This disease is incurable. For environmental management to reduce or abate the pollution load in soil or water. In waste recycling to increase productivity.
In plant breeding by the incorporation of useful genes In bringing pest resistance in agriculture crops. And in treatment of diseases by way of gene therapy etc. Write a note on scope of Bio-informatics. J, M, S Helps to create an electronic database on genomes and protein sequences from single celled organisms to multicellular organisms.
It provides techniques by which three- dimensional models of biomolecules could be understood along with their structure and function. It integrates mathematical, statistical and computational methods to analyse biological, biochemical and biophysical data.
It provides genome level data for understanding normal biological processes and explains the malfunctioning of genes leading to diagnosing of diseases and designing of new drugs. Mention the uses of recombinant DNA technology. M, M The understanding of structure of eukaryotic genes and their components. To synthesize certain vital life saving drugs, hormones and antibiotics eg. The genotypes of plants are altered. New transgenic plants which are resistant to diseases and pest attack have been produced.
Genetic defects in animals as well as human could be corrected through gene therapy. Genetically engineered bacteria are called superbugs.
Superbugs can degrade several aromatic Hydrocarbons and clearing oil spills in the ocean. What are the uses of transgenic animals? M, M More efficient than their normal counterpart in feed assimilation. Faster growth and hence achieve the marketable size sooner. Meat quality is good. They are resistant to certain diseases. They serve as bioreactors for obtaining valuable recombinant proteins and pharmaceuticals from their milk or urine or blood.
Give the symbolic representation of pedigree chart. What is Glowing coal? What are the uses of it? OR Explain the protein model and its uses. J In proteomics, to delineate information about a protein at atomic and molecular levels, models are constructed. X-ray crystallography can give a skeleton model of a protein from its results on its atomic details.
With atomic data, computers nowadays generate graphic images of the molecules on high-resolution screen. Computer modeling of protein began as early as The computer-generated models depict not only the properties of amino acids in a protein but also help to understand the protein function. Computer graphic models is the Glowing coal Uses: Protein structure helps in understanding biomolecular arrangement in tissue or cellular architecture.
Protein structures, protein models and computer aided graphic models help to understand biological reactions mediated by enzymes proteins. Graphic models provided by computers are valuable to predict which fragments of a medically important protein can be used to design drugs and vaccines.
Proteomics also helps in chemical industries to manufacture drugs, various chemical compounds and enzymes.
Describe the karotyping of human chromosomes M The 23 pairs of chromosomes in human are classified into seven groups viz, A-G based on position of centromere. Group A: Group A includes 1, 2 and 3 chromosomes. It includes the largest chromosomes. Metacentric with two equal arms. Group B: Group B includes 4 and 5 chromosomes. Submetacentric with two unequal arms. Group C: Group C includes 6,7,8,9,10,11,12 and X chromosomes.
This is the largest group Submetacentric with two unequal arms. The X chromosome resembles the chromosome 6 in this group. Group D: Group D includes 13,14 and 15 chromosomes. Acrocentric Group E: Group E includes 16,17 and 18 chromosomes. Meta or submetacentric. Group F: Group F includes 19 and 20 chromosomes. Group G: Group G includes 21, 22 and Y chromosomes.
Explain Dr Ian Wilmut's cloning mechanism. S Dr. Ian Wilmut has produced a cloned sheep called Dolly by nuclear transplantation method. To produce cloned sheep he took the udder cell which is a somatic cell with diploid number of chromosomes.
An egg cell was also removed from a donor sheep. The egg cell cannot grow into a new sheep on its own because it only has half a set of chromosomes n. The body cell cannot grow into a new sheep on its own because it is not a reproductive cell.
So udder cell nucleus 2n was removed. Similarly the egg cell nucleus n was also removed. I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Product details Paperback: English ISBN Be the first to review this item site Bestsellers Rank: No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a product review.